I don't think so, not really. The closest you could probably get would be to have one durable unit move around the patrol route you want, and to then give the "patrolling" units you have an order to "move" to the primary unit. Those following may move around the gravity well and attack enemy units around, but will immediately follow the leading unit when it starts to warp out. Another problem is that the leading unit may well be targeted first by whatever enemy ships are around and will die first, so keeping a patrol route up could be quite hard without the first unit dying.
The best option would simply be to be able to survey the galaxy and give orders to your units when you see enemy ships around.