Scavenger: I want to be directly next to a high and medium carbon. Shipping carbon too far costs too much fuel. Also try to avoid being in a tiny crater because then you run into fuel problems and lack of space.
Robotic. Somewhere as close to aluminum and iron as possible. More is better.
Expansive. On a large cluster of something for the earliest bonus to allow you to sell them and upgrade immediately. Not too important what resource, but aluminum is probably the most important since you don't need as much steel and aluminum is pretty reliable price wise.
Scientific. next to aluminum, with a cluster of iron and a cluster of water relatively close. Again, fuel costs are a consideration, and generally you want large patches of water around for both food and electrolysis building clusters.
Generally, the idea is to be next to a High resource and within close proximity to the lesser important resources that you'll need. If you have to ship something important all the way across the map, you are going to get hurt badly by fuel prices unless you plan on getting teleportation.
said spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1TTBSBI95C1vhax-jVFCCBu-kyWsnnoWqWvEGOOwvm1c/edit#gid=0