It could be with the new Teams, but I can just now confirm that the crash does not happen when I disable HDR mode in Windows 11 with WindowsFX enabled then open a teams meeting doing screen share.
I can create a new meeting with just myself and share my main screen.
WindowFX Disabled and using Windows 11 HDR on = No Crash.
WindowFX Enabled and using Windows 11 HDR off = No Crash.
WindowFX Enabled and using Windows 11 HDR on = Teams Crash and relaunch on immediately sharing screen, or within about 5-10 seconds.
Monitor is 3440x1440 set to 119.88Hz. RGB, SDR (30-bit Color Mode) output color depth 10bpc in Nvidia Control Panel.